Wednesday, August 13, 2014

Amphipolis Timeline

A timeline of the history of Amphipolis
800 B.C. future site of Amphipolis controlled by Illyrians
497 B.C. Milesian tyrant Histiaeus attempts takeover and colonization of site
480 B.C. Persian invasion of Greece under Xerxes I. passes through site, buries alive "nine young men and nine maidens as a sacrifice to the river god [of the Strymon river]"
479 B.C. Alexander I of Macedon defeats remnants of Xerxes army near site
476 B.C. failed Athenian attempt to colonize the site
465 B.C. Athenians found colony of Ennea-Hodoi ("Nine Ways") at site with 10,000 settlers; all settlers are massacred by Thracians
437 B.C. Athenians attempt to found another colony at site, under Hagnon, son of Nicias; this attempt leads to the city of Amphipolis
424 B.C. city beseiged by Spartan general Brasidas as part of larger "Peloponnesian War"; city defended by Athenian general Eucles, who requests help from the Athenian general (and famous historian) Thucydides stationed nearby on the island of Thasos; Thucydides only reaches the town of Eion (the port of Amphipolis) before Amphipolis surrenders to Brasidas under the promise of good terms; Thucydides defends Eion but cannot retake Amphipolis and is exiled by the Athenians as a scapegoat for the disaster; Amphipolis becomes a Spartan city
422 B.C. Athenian army led by the demagogue Cleon fails to retake the site; Cleon and Brasidas killed in the fighting; Brasidas is later considered the "founder" of the city of Amphipolis
417 B.C. Athenian Nicias attempts to retake the city following Spartan failure to follow peace agreement
357 B.C. Philip II. of Macedon captures the city; the city is only gradually assimilated into the Macedonian sphere
356 B.C. Alexander III. ("the Great") is born
323 B.C. Alexander III. dies
325-300 B.C. Kasta Hill monument built
168 B.C. Rome conquers Macedonia in Battle of Pydna; Amphipolis made capital of one of the four mini-states that Rome divides the region into
0 the year 0, start of "common era"
533 A.D. first mention of a bishop of the region
circa 550 A.D. major earthquake hits Amphipolis, possible source of damage in Kasta Tomb
787 A.D. last known record of a bishop of the region, indicating that Amphipolis is probably abandoned around this time
1800-1900 A.D. existence of site well known to archeologists
1913 A.D. Bulgarian army unit stationed nearby; possible shelling damage to Kasta mound vicinity
1916 A.D. British and French soldiers active in region; possible looting of sites
1934 A.D. Amphipolis lion sculpture found
1952 A.D. tomb robbers attempt to dig into the Kasta mound with a "mechanical digger," are chased off by locals (mentioned here)
1972, 1985 A.D. formal excavation of city led by D. Lazaridis
1998 A.D. 3D scanning technology used on Kasta mound(?), indicating some complexities inside the hill
2012 A.D. initiation of formal archeological dig at the Kasta site
2014 A.D. "tomb" entrance found; archeologists begin excavating inside the monument

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